Teaching Aims and demands 本单元通过学习马克·吐温的《百万英镑》并改编成短剧形式的课文，学生能初步了解作者的风格。学生应能在教师的指导下，排演这个短剧。通过对话课的学习与操练，学生接触表示坚持个人意见的常用语句，并要求学生运用到实际会话中。学习并初步掌握as if和no matter引导让步状语从句的用法。 Teaching important and difficult points 1.单词 run, choice, note, change, fool, order, pleasant, right, assistant, customer, foolish, insist, tailor depend, favo(u)r , apologize, excited 2.词组 shop assistant, a clothes shop, give back, or else, change…for …, in the sun, try on, depend on, take place, get off, put on, drop in, once upon a time, do up, in fact, keep back, play the part of, next to 3.交际用语 There seems to be something wrong with it. I would like you to change this blouse. You sold me a blouse that I can’t use any more. I am afraid I can’t do that right now. Why can’t you do something about it? Is anything the matter? 4.语法 学习as if和no matter的用法。
课文建议 在Lesson 38课，建议教师应组织学生1)以节目的形式演出这段对话。2)教师可选取录像或多媒体形式完成此课的教学任务。3)教师把学生分成三人一组，适当准备一些道具排演本课的最后结局的短剧。4)教师要求学生找出能刻画服装店老板人物特征和心理变化的相关语句。如：There’s a customer, Tod, Will you serve him? / No matter what he is wearing , Tod, just show him the cheapest./Come, come. Get him his change, Tod..
对话分析 本单元对话是讲述在服装店调换衣服的经过，学生对其内容较易理解，但一些新单词的用法应掌握，如：customer, run, insist, change…for…。本课中也提供了给学生做相应对话的练习，如：A pair of trousers, A radio的口语练习。
1)serve(sb.) as sth.表示“为(某人)工作，(尤指)当佣人”。 He served as a gardener and chauffeur.他做园艺工人兼司机。 2)serve还可表示“供职，服役”。 He has served his country well.他为国尽职。 3)serve sb. (with sth.). 表示“将(饭菜)端上桌。” Four waiters served lunch for us.有四位服务员招待我们吃午饭。 4)serve 还可用于“(在商店等处)接待(顾客)或为顾客取货物”的意思中。 Are you being served?有售货员接待您吗? He served some sweets to the children.他为孩子们拿来了他们想要的糖。 5)serve 还指“(一份饭)够……”。 This packet of soup serves two.这包汤料够两个人食用。 2.judge的用法 1)judge用作动词，表示作“断定，估计，认为”解。其后可带宾语从句，也可带不定式或形容词、名词等引导的宾补成分。 We judge that they have finished.我们估计他们已经干完了。 We judge them to have finished.我们估计他们已经干完了。 She judged him about fifty.她估计他在五十岁左右。 The committee judged it better to start the investigation at once.委员会认为立即开始此项调查。 From his letter, we judged his visit to China a great success.从他的来信判断他对中国的访问非常成功。 2)judge用作“判断，断定”解时，还可接wh—分句或wh—加不定式结构。 I can’t judge whether she was right or wrong.我不能断定她是对还是错。 3)judge还可表示“评判，评价”，可说judge sb. / sth. Don’t judge a man by his looks.勿以貌取人。 4)Judging by / from…(从……来看，据……来判断)是惯用短语，可用来引导独立分句。 Judging from his looks ,he may be sick.从外表看，他或许生病了。 Judging by his accent, he must be from Guangdong.听口音，他准是个广东人。 3.get off的用法 1)get off意为“脱下”。 It’s rather hot today, we must get off the jacket.今天太热了，我们必须脱下夹克衫。 2)注意：get off还可作“下车”;“离开”;“出发”;“起飞”解。 As soon as I got off the bus, I started for the village on foot. 我一下公共汽车，就开始步行到村里去。 We must get off at once or we' II be late我们必须马上走，否则要迟到了。 We got off immediately after breakfast.我们一吃过早饭就出发了。 The plane got off on time. 飞机准时起飞。
4.favor的用法 1)in favor (of )表示“赞成、主张”，常用作表语或后置定语。 The students were in favor of reform. 学生赞成改革。 2)do sb. a favor或do a favor for sb. 是个正式的礼貌用语，意思是 “给某人以恩惠，帮某人的忙”。 Would you do me a favor? 帮我一下好吗? Do me a favor by turning off the radio. 帮我把收音机关掉。 Do me the favor to come. 务请光临。 注：do sb. a favor后接of doing 或不定式时，应将不定冠词a改为定冠词the。
1)意为“写下;记下”。 Put down your name and your telephone number.写下你的名字和电话号码。 Put this down in your notebook for future reference.这点记在你的笔记本上，以供今后参考。 2)可作“;扑灭”。 The fire was finally put down by the firemen.大火最后终于被员扑灭了。 6.as if的用法 as if 是连词词组，作“好像”、“好似”解，引导表语从句，用于下列句型中： It looks/seems as if ....表示“看起来似乎……”。其中It为无人称代词，本身并无词义。looks / seems是连系动词，as if引出表语从句。 It looks as if it is going to show. 看来，要下雪。 It seemed as if the suit was made to his own measure. 这套衣服看来似乎是按尺寸给他定做的。 除此之处，as if也可以引导方式状语从句，修饰主句的谓语，此时从句中的谓语动词常用虚拟语气。关于这一点，暂可不必向学生交代。 The woman loves the children as if she were their mother.这个妇女爱这些孩子，她好像就是他们的妈妈一样。
7. no matter 的用法 no matter作“无论”、“不管”解，用以引导表示让步的状语从句，常用在下列句型中： 句型中的No matter what (who/when etc.)...分别表示“无论何事”、“无论何人”、“无论何时”等，这个从句可以置主句之前，也可以置主句之后。 由no matter + what等引导的让步状语从句。No matter后面接关系代词或关系副词引导状语从句在句中作让步状语。 No matter what you do, you must be very careful.不管做什么事，你都必须非常细心。 No matter之后可用what以外的关系代词或关系副词。例如： No matter who you are (=Whoever you are), I’ll never let you in.无论你是谁，我绝不让你进去。 No matter which…无论哪一个…… No matter which you choose(=Whichever you choose), you will be satisfied.不论你选择哪一个，你都会满意的。 No matter where…无论何处;不管在哪里…… No matter where I go (=Wherever I go) , I will be thinking of you. 无论我到哪里，我都会想着你。 No matter when …无论何时，不管什么时候…… I’ll discuss it with you no matter when you like(=whenever like). 你什么时候高兴，我愿意同你讨论这件事。 No matter how..不管……如何;无论……多么…… No matter how hard you try(=However hard you try), you will never be successful. 不管你如何努力，你都不会成功的。 8.drop in, drop in on 与drop in at的区别 drop in 意为“顺便走访” He often drops in for tea. 他经常顺便来喝茶。 drop in on 后接人意为“顺便拜访某人”。 She dropped in on me yesterday. drop in at后接表示地点的名词意为“顺便来(去)某处看看”。 Tom usually drops in at my place on his way home. 答题时要注意drop in后所接的名词表示的意思。 Jane used to ____ the tailor’s on her way home from work. A. drop in B. drop in on C. drop in at D. drop at 詹妮以前常下班后去成衣店看看。the tailor’s 表示地点，故正确答案为C。
9.run的用法 1)表示“跑，奔跑，赛跑”。 The boy ran off as soon as we appeared.我们一来，孩子们都跑了。 She used to run when she was at college.在大学时她经常练跑步。 2)run还可表示“(火车、汽车、轮船等)往来行驶” Buses to Oxford run every half hour.去牛津的公共汽车每半小时一班。 The trains don’t run on Christmas Day.圣诞节火车停驶。
3)run可用业表示“(液体)流动”。 Could you run me a hot bath?你给我放盆热水洗澡好吗? Your nose is running.你又流鼻涕了。 4)run表示“(衣服上的染料或颜色)掉色，扩散”。 I’m afraid the color ran when I washed your new skirt.很遗憾， 我洗你那条新裙子的时候它掉色了。 5)run可表示“融化”。 It was so hot that the butter ran.天太热，黄油开始化了。 The wax began to run. 蜡开始融化了。 6)run还可表示“负责、经营、管理”。 He has no idea of how to run the successful business.他不知道把企业办好的方法。 Stop trying to run my life for me.我的生活用不着你来管。 10.Come, come. Get him his change. Tod. ( = Hurry up. Tod, Give the man his change.) 得了，得了，给他找钱吧，托德。 句中的come用作感叹语，表示“劝导”，“不耐烦”的情绪。come作感叹语用时，在不同的情况下，可以表示不同的感表，如“鼓励”、“惊异”、“命令”等。例如： Come, come, Alice, you must be patient. 好了，爱丽丝，你得忍耐点。 本句中的change是不可数名词，作“零钱”，“找给的钱”解。又如： Here is your change. 这是找给你的零钱。 change还可以用作及物动词，作“零钱”，“换钱”解。 Could you change a 10-yuon note, please? 你能换开10元钱吗?
Step 1 Revision
1 Check the homework exercises.
2 Ask the Ss a few random questions to revise future time and introduce the topic of the unit. For example: What lessons do you have this afternoon / tomorrow? Are you going to do anything special this evening? What do you think the weather will be like tomorrow? What are you going to do on Saturday evening? Are you planning to do anything on Sunday?
Step 2 Presentation
SB Page 25, Part 1. Ask questions about the picture, and get Ss to tell you what they think is happening. Teach the new words majority, goods, industry. Read the introduction aloud.
Step 3 Reading
Say Now read the dialogue silently and find out this information: What is being planned at this company? Allow the Ss a few moments to carry out the task. Check the answer. (A new factory may be built.) See if the Ss can guess the meaning of out of work.
Step 4 Dialogue
Speech Cassette Lesson 65. Play the tape of the dialogue for the Ss to listen and follow. Go through the dialogue briefly and make sure the Ss understand it. Ask questions like these: What are people at the company talking about? Who is going to make the decision? Why does the company need to build a new factory? What is the difficulty? Why do some people want the new factory to be built? Why are some people against the new factory? Explain that may have plans expresses uncertainty about the future. Play the tape again. This time the Ss listen and repeat. Then let the Ss practise the dialogue in pairs. You may wish to ask one pair to act the scene in front of the class.
a People have been talking of it a lot recently.:
Note the Present Perfect Continuous Tense to express an activity which started in the past and is still continuing.
b I simply don‘t know. = I honestly don’t know.
c Right now = At this moment
d The problem is … it. = Finding land for building the new factory is a problem ( i.e. difficult).
e The majority of people = Most people
f a number of people = quite a lot of people
g out of work = do not have jobs
h But some people … built on. = Some people do not want them to build a factory on good farm land. Note the structure not want something to be done.
i I can see the problem. = I understand the problem.
j is likely to happen = will probably happen
k It‘s quite likely: Quite emphasizes likely and increases the possibility.
Step 5 Practice
SB Page 25, Part 2. Demonstrate how to make sentences from the table, then get a few Ss to make example sentences. Then let the Ss do this exercise in pairs. At the end get Ss to write down 5 sentences from this table in their exercise books.
Step 6 Workbook
Wb Lesson 65, E. 1 - 4.
after Ex. 1 is done orally, get the Ss to write the answers in their exercise books.
both E. 2 and 3 should be done in pairs first. Then check the answers with the class. Get Ss to translate the sentences into Chinese and ask them to think if they will be able to put them back into English. Pay attention to the sentence structures.
When doing Ex. 4, warn the Ss not to do word for word translation. Special attention should be paid to the sentence patterns and word order.
Step 7 Consolidation
With a good class you can give the Ss the following phrases and get them to make up a dialogue. Write these phrases on the Bb.
i believe you’re right.
What are the problems then?
What do you think is likely to happen?
Write them up on the Bb and demonstrate with a good S how it is possible to make up a dialogue.
a: I think the company will buy more land.
b: I believe you‘re right.
a: But it isn’t likely that the manager will make a decision soon.
b: What are the problems then?
With an ordinary class, just practise the dialogue in Part 1 again.
finish off the Workbook exercises.
do Ex. 1 and part of Ex. 4 as written work.
Teaching goals 教学目标
1. Target language 目标语言
Suggest, persuade, observation, contributions, achieve, devote ... to
2. Ability goals 能力目标
enable the students to learn the way of persuasive writing and descriptive writing.
3. Learning ability goals 学能目标
Learn how to write a persuasive writing and a descriptive writing.
Teaching important points教学重点
help the students to learn to write a persuasive writing and a report.
Teaching difficult points教学难点
how to write a report about a scientist and his / her job.
Teaching methods 教学方法
Teaching aids 教具准备
a computer and a projector.
Teaching procedures & ways 教学过程与方式
Step Ⅰ Presentation
Task 1: Summarize the way of writing a report.
T: Now class, if we want to write a report about a scientist, what contents should we include?
S1: The life of the scientist, such as his birth and death dates, his family, his education, his personality, his achievements and contributions, his key factors to his success.
T: Yes. You are right. And how do we make an outline about it?
S2: We should put the collected information under three headlines: life, achievements and key to success.
Task 2: Remind the students of the writing techniques and writing features of a report.
Show the following to the students.
formal language with few adjectives
No speech except quotations
Only one main character
factual structured according to experimental method
Past tense and passive voice
Task 3: Summarize the way of persuasive writing.
T: You know if we want to persuade sb, we always want to reason with him or her. We must develop our own ideas and provide some evidence to support our ideas so there are always three steps to persuade somebody else to change his or her point of view. Can you point out what the three steps are?
S1: I think the first is to give your opinion and idea.
S2: The second is to give the reasons and evidence to support your idea.
S3: The third is to make a conclusion.
Show the following to the students.
a persuasive writing
formal or informal, vivid use of language
Speech to show feelings, reactions, etc
emotional or not emotional to describe feelings and facts
Only two main characters
factual or imaginative based on fact
Reason and persuade step by step
Then ask the students to write a short letter as required in Exercise 3.
a sample version:
dear Nicolaus Copernicus,
i am a student studying history and I would very much like to read your new theory about the solar system. I hope you will publish it for several reasons. I understand the problems with the present theory. The way the planets move is not what you would expect if the earth was the centre of the universe. It is also odd that the brightness of some stars seems to change. So I agree with you that we need new theory.
i know your observations have been very carefully carried out over many years. Now you must have the courage to publish them. Science can never advance unless people have the courage of their beliefs. I know you worry about what will happen if you publish your new theory. No matter how people oppose it, time will show if your ideas are right or wrong.
So I hope you can publish your new theory.
Step Ⅱ Writing
ask the students to write a report about a scientist.
Sample versions (见附件3, 4, 5)
Step Ⅲ Homework
ask the students to do the Project on page 47.
1. How to do a science research
a science project is an investigation using the scientific method to discover the answer to a scientific problem. Before starting your project, you need to un derstand the scientific method. This section uses examples to illustrate and explain the basic steps of the scientific method. The scientific method is the “tool” that scientists use to find the answers to questions. It is the process of thinking through the possible solutions to a problem and testing each possibility to find the best solution. The scientific method involves the following steps: doing research, identifying the problem, stating a hypothesis, con-ducting project experimentation, and reaching a conclusion.
Research is the process of collecting information from your own experiences, knowledgeable sources, and data from exploratory experiments. Your first research is used to select a project topic. This is called topic research. For example, you observe a black growth on bread slices and wonder how it got there. Because of this experience, you decide to learn more about mold growth. Your topic will be about fungal reproduction. (Fungal refers to plant-like organisms called fungi, which cannot make their own food, and reproduction is the making of a new offspring.) CAUTION: If you are allergic to mold, this is not a topic you would investigate. Choose a topic that is safe for you to do.
after you have selected a topic, you begin what is called project research. This research is to help you understand the topic, express a problem, propose a hypothesis, and design one or more project experiments — experiments designed to test the hypothesis. An example of project research would be to place a fresh loaf of white bread in a bread box and observe the bread over a period of time as an exploratory experiment. The result of this experiment and other research give you the needed information for the next step — identifying the problem.
The problem is the scientific question to be solved. It is best expressed as an “open-ended” question, which is a question that is answered with a statement, not just a yes or a no.
a hypothesis is an idea about the solution to a problem, based on knowledge and research. While the hypothesis is a single statement, it is the key to a successful project.
all of your project research is done with the goal of expressing a problem, proposing an answer to it (the hypothesis), and designing project experimentation. Then all of your project experimenting will be performed to test the hypothesis.
do state facts from past experiences or observations on which you base your hypothesis.
do write down your hypothesis before beginning the project experimentation.
don’t change your hypothesis even if experimentation does not support it. If time permits, repeat or redesign the experiment to confirm your results.
Project experimentation is the process of testing a hypothesis. The things that have an effect on the experiment are called variables. There are three kinds of variables that you need to identify in your experiments: independent, dependent, and controlled variables.
The independent variable is the variable you purposely manipulate (change). The dependent variable is the variable that is being observed, which changes in response to the independent variable. The variables that are not changed are called controlled variables.
do have only one independent variable during an experiment.
do repeat the experiment more than once to verify your results.
do have a control.
do have more than one control, with each being identical.
do organize data.
The project conclusion is a summary of the results of the project experimentation and a statement of how the results relate to the hypothesis.
if your results do not support your hypothesis:
dON’T change your hypothesis.
dON’T leave out experimental results that do not support your hypothesis.
dO give possible reasons for the difference between your hypothesis and the experimental results.
dO give ways that you can experiment further to find a solution.
if your results support your hypothesis:
You might say, for example, “As stated in my hypothesis, I believe that light is not necessary during the germination of bean seeds. My experimentation supports the idea that bean seeds will germinate without light. After seven days, the seeds tested were seen growing in full light and in no light. It is possible that some light reached the ‘no light’ containers that were placed in a dark closet. If I were to improve on this experiment, I would place the ‘no light’ containers in a light-proof box and / or wrap them in light-proof material, such as aluminum foil.”
2. On women scientists : A speech in the International Women’s Day
Women thou hast encircled the world’s heart with the depth of thy tears as the sea has the earth.
Women in your laughter you have the music of the fountain of life.
The message is clear; it is inspiring and presents a deep philosophy. Women would be the change agent in this fast moving world’s socio-economic scenario.
We have assembled here today to celebrate the International Women’s Day and also the Year of Empowerment of Women.
Madam Curie who got the Nobel Prize just after two years of establishment of the Nobel Foundation — first in 1903 in Physics when she shared it and then the second one in 1911 in Chemistry, created a history by winning two Nobel Prizes in a span of 8 years. I am sure, the group here is aware of the difficult conditions and laboratory arrangements under which she worked and yet, she excelled.
biotechnologists can never forget the work of Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin on Crystallography leading to the structure of the important biological crystals. She won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1964. The work of Barbara McClintock, a geneticist won her the Nobel Prize in 1983.
just as someone said: “Developing countries that have made remarkable social progress, have done so primarily through the empowerment of women, which has had enormous impact in terms of literacy, health and economic well being of families.” What we need to do is to ensure the valuable contribution from 50% of our human resource.
it is a matter of great pleasure for all of us to see that the women are not only confined to biology, a subject in which they have been contributing significantly, they are also joining the areas of physical sciences and engineering and performing equally well.
Somehow, in many parts of the world today, science and technology interventions have treated women primarily as recipient of knowledge and have under estimated their importance as generators of innovations and as a dynamic agent of economic and social change. In empowering the women with scientific and technological skills, women scientists and technologists have a major role. Biotechnology and biosciences including medical, agriculture and basic research have opened up new opportunities. The involvement of women scientists and technologists in physical sciences, especially in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) dates back to 1903, they worked as explorers, pioneers and innovators. By the end of the 20th century, at least 25% of the astronauts at NASA were women, 16% scientists and engineers.
Of course, it is extremely important that women scientists and technologists are appreciated for their dual role in the society while pursuing scientific research as a career. They should also nurture and cherish their qualities of culture, compassion, courage and creativity. And above all, the cooperative spirit. The five ‘Cs’ are personified in women’s personality.
3. Charles Drawin Origin of Species
The English scientist, Charles Darwin was born on February 12, 1809, the same day that Abraham Lincoln was born. Darwin caused a change in thinking about evolution, whereas Lincoln caused a change in the role of the black slave, allowing the black man to be a free man in American society.
darwin’s father tried to influence his son to become a worthy student in school. However, Charles did not like to study Latin or Greek, which was required for a classical education. Instead, he made a secret laboratory in his father’s garden where he could experiment in chemistry and physics.
his headmaster had a very low opinion of his scholarly abilities. So his father decided to send him to Edinburgh, Scotland, to medical school. However, Charles couldn’t bear the sight of surgical demonstrations. One time, a child was being operated on without any painkiller or anesthesia. The child began to scream in agony and Charles ran from the room. Those screams haunted his mind for many years.
Since he failed at medical school, his father sent him to study theology at Christ’s Church at Cambridge University. However, in his own words, he said his time was sadly wasted “in playing, drinking, singing, flirting and card playing.” But he found a science professor there who recommended he sail as a naturalist on the ship called hte Beagle. This ship would travel for 5 years exploring South America and the Galapagos Islands off the coast of Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean.
On these islands, he observed the world’s largest turtles, the iguana lizards, and finches, a type of bird. These birds were on different islands and varied from each other, especially in their beaks.
darwin took many notes on this long adventure. When he returned to England, his body was broken and he was essentially ill for the rest of his life. However, he came to the interesting conclusion that certain finches adapted better to their environment in a process called natural selection. Those species more fitted to their environment would be the ones most likely to breed and succeed in producing the next generation.
in 1859, he wrote On the Origin of Species, which became the most significant book ever written on the theory of evolution. His ideas have had more influence than anyone concerning how living species developed over time.